Genuine Leather Couches

When you think about buying a genuine leather couch thoughts of quality, durability, and style come to mind. Cielo’s range of genuine leather couches offers you the most beautiful designs covered in a variety of high-quality genuine leathers including full-grain, top-grain, and Nubuck leather.

Style your living spaces with the kind of couches that will not only remain in your family for years but will also improve with age. Buying genuine leather furniture means that your home is fitted with naturally moisture-resistant, exceptionally soft, and breathable materials that are the practical and luxurious choice for any home and lifestyle.

Genuine leather upholstery is smooth and easy to clean, making it the ideal material for families with kids and pets, usually only needing a bit of dusting and a quick wipe to take care of sticky spills.

Browse through our wide range of Armchairs as well as 2 Seater, 3 Seater, Corner, and Modular Couches

Rs157,499

Add an inspiring touch of Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia Leather Lounge Suite. With its classic full grain leather texture, this suit is a natural statement piece that add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. This ample 3-1-1 suite makes for an ideal modern living room set.

  • Three Seater leather couch
  • Two leather armchairs
  • Full grain leather

Rs119,699

Add a rich dose of texture to your living space with the Hayden Leather Corner Couch, upholstered in high-quality leather. This opulent corner unit features an elegant modern design with distinctive stitching. The blind tufted seat cushions and tapered steel legs give the Hayden a unique character and charm. This corner couch is spacious and opulent, ideal for hosting friends and family.

Upholstered in high-quality leather

Blind tufted seat design

Rs75,599

Add a bold Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia 3-seater Leather Couch. This ample 3-seater is full of personality, with its classic full grain leather texture, making it a natural statement piece to add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. 

  • Full grain leather
  • Iconic steel legs

Rs124,199

Experience the epitome of luxury seating with the Emerson 3-Seater Leather Couch. Wrapped in supple full grain leather with sturdy solid ash wood legs, this couch invites you to relax in unrivaled comfort. Enhance any living space with its sophisticated, tufted design and enduring high-end quality.

Rs59,899

The Jagger Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. The Jagger is upholstered with luxurious full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. This couch is the ideal furniture piece for any contemporary setting.

Rs113,399

Add a rich dose of texture to your living space with the Hayden L Shape Couch upholstered in high-quality leather. This opulent couch features an elegant modern design, finished with distinctive stitching. The blind tufted seat cushions and tapered steel legs give the Hayden a unique character and charm.

  • Upholstered in high-quality leather
  • Blind tufted seat design

Rs157,499

Add an inspiring touch of Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia Leather Corner Couch. With its rich, bold colour and full grain leather texture, this ample corner couch makes an ideal statement piece, adding unparalleled style and luxurious comfort to your living space.

Rs69,299

The Remington 3-Seater Leather Couch presents a modern design with an airy presence. Its slim borders and straight lines create a stylish silhouette. Upholstered in full grain leather with mild steel legs and exposed stitching, this couch displays attention to detail.

Rs157,499

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs170,099

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs132,299

The Jagger Leather Lounge Suite boasts a bold contemporary suite with a simple but striking design. With plenty of sitting space, this lounge suite is upholstered with luxurious full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 3 seater with two armchairs
  • Full grain leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs157,499

Add an inspiring touch of Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia Leather Lounge Suite. With its classic full grain leather texture, this suit is a natural statement piece that add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. This ample 3-1-1 suite makes for an ideal modern living room set.

  • Three seater leather couch
  • Two leather armchairs
  • Full grain leather

Rs116,599

Add a bold Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia L-Shape Leather Couch. This ample L-Shape is full of personality, with its classic full grain leather texture, making it a natural statement piece to add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. 

Rs157,499

Add an inspiring touch of Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia Leather corner couch. With its rich, bold colour and full grain leather texture, this ample corner couch makes an ideal statement piece, adding unparalleled style and luxurious comfort to your living space. Sink back into plush cushioning, put your feet up, and enjoy the soft embrace of leather you won’t want to leave.

Rs138,599

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

Rs129,199

The Jagger Leather Modular Daybed boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs188,999

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch with Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs125,999

The Archer premium leather exterior, plush feather cushioning and attention to detail makes this prestigious couch a status symbol in your home. Featuring full grain leather, with composite duck feather inners and exposed stitching, this L-Shape couch elevates your living space to a new level of luxury. 

Rs116,599

Add a bold Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia L-Shape Leather Couch. This ample L-Shape is full of personality, with its classic full grain leather texture, making it a natural statement piece to add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. 

  • Full grain leather
  • Iconic steel legs

Rs100,799

The Jagger Leather Modular 4-Seater Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs91,399

Bold, daring and one-of-a-kind the Cuban Couch makes a statement that’s hard to ignore. Cloaked in luxurious full grain leather, this rich 3-seater takes a curvaceous form with stitched lines that give it a truly distinctive design.

Rs138,599

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boats a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

Rs157,499

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs129,199

The Jagger Leather Modular Daybed boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs75,599

Add a bold Mid-century modern elegance to your space with the Ottavia 3-seater Leather Couch. This ample 3-seater is full of personality, with its classic full grain leather texture, making it a natural statement piece to add visual ‘zing’ and luxurious comfort to your living space. 

  • Full grain leather
  • Iconic steel legs

Rs188,999

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch with Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs85,099

The Archer's premium leather exterior, plush feather cushioning and attention to detail makes this prestigious couch a status symbol in your home. Featuring full grain leather, with composite duck feather inners and exposed stitching, this generous couch elevates your living space to a new level of luxury. 

Rs53,599

The Jagger Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. The Jagger is upholstered with luxurious full-grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. This couch is the ideal furniture piece for any contemporary setting.

Rs59,899

The Jagger Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. The Jagger is upholstered with luxurious full-grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. This couch is the ideal furniture piece for any contemporary setting.

Rs170,099

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs100,799

The Jagger Leather Modular 4-Seater Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space, this modular couch is upholstered with genuine full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

Rs72,499

The Remington 3-Seater Leather Couch presents a modern design with an airy presence. Its slim borders and straight lines create a stylish silhouette. Upholstered in full grain leather with mild steel legs and exposed contrast stitching, this couch displays attention to detail.

Rs53,599

The Jagger Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. The Jagger is upholstered with luxurious full grain leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. This couch is the ideal furniture piece for any contemporary setting.

Rs56,699

The Remington 2-Seater Leather Couch presents a modern design with an airy presence. Its slim borders and straight lines create a stylish silhouette. Upholstered in full grain leather with mild steel legs and exposed contrast stitching, this couch displays attention to detail.

Rs220,499

The iconic Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full-grain vintage leather upholstery.

  • Piano caster front feet add an extra touch of vintage charm and convenience.

  • The set includes a beautiful three-seater couch and two armchairs.

Rs132,299

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boats a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs220,499

The iconic Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full-grain vintage leather upholstery.

  • Piano caster front feet add an extra touch of vintage charm and convenience.

  • The set includes a beautiful three-seater couch and two armchairs.

Rs220,499

The iconic Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather Lounge Suite lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full-grain vintage leather upholstery.

  • Piano caster front feet.

  • The set includes a beautiful 3 seater couch and two armchairs.

Rs154,399

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck genuine leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 5-piece Modular Couch
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs148,099

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 5-piece Modular Couch with free-standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs125,999

Give your lounge a new look with the Hoffmann Leather Lounge Suite. This suite combines classic features and contemporary innovation to produce new-century comfort. The full-grain leather will fill the room with a warmth and stand as a defining feature in your living room.

  • Full-grain leather upholstery
  • Blind tufting seating design
  • 1 x Hoffmann 3 seater with distinctive stitching and tapered wooden feet.
  • 2 x Hoffmann armchairs with blind tufting and sleek modern design

Rs148,099

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 5-piece Modular Couch with free standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs122,899

The Jagger Leather Modular Daybed boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch with free standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seam

Rs62,999

The Jayhawk Leather Couch offers relaxed sophistication, ideal for any contemporary living space. Intentionally crafted with high-quality full grain leather this pristine 3 seater is a refined and comforting take on a modern classic.

The distinctively rounded profile is produced by unique cushioning for a richer shape. This ample three-seater shows off reversed stitched seams adding distinctive personality and class to an otherwise laid-back contemporary look.

Rs132,299

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boats a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs122,899

The Jagger Leather Modular Daybed boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch with free-standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seam

Rs122,899

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck genuine leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 5-piece Modular Couch
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs62,999

The Jayhawk Leather Couch offers relaxed sophistication, ideal for any contemporary living space. Intentionally crafted with high-quality full grain leather this pristine 3 seater is a refined and comforting take on a modern classic.

The distinctively rounded profile is produced by unique cushioning for a richer shape. This ample 3 seater shows off reversed stitched seams adding distinctive personality and class to an otherwise laid-back contemporary look.

Rs146,499

The contemporary silhouette of the Burbank Modular Leather Couch features clean lines and emphasises comfort and style. With upholstery in full grain leather accented with reverse stitch design.  Bold, daring and unique, this 5-piece modular couch makes a statement in any living area.  

Rs176,399

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch with Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 6-piece modular couch with free-standing ottoman
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs122,899

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck genuine leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 5-piece Modular Couch
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs75,599

The Jagger Leather Modular 4-Seater Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 3-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs157,499

Bold and exquisite, the Nixon four-piece corner couch is wrapped in exquisite full-grain leather and features wide armrests and a comfortable deep seat. Exposed stitching adds a modern finish to the simplicity of this large lounge set. 

Rs97,699

The iconic Jefferson Leather 2-Seater Couch will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather 2-Seater Couch lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full grain leather upholstery and piano caster front feet.



Rs119,699

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 5-piece Modular Couch with free-standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs119,699

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch With Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 5-piece Modular Couch with free-standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs94,499

The Jagger Leather Modular 4-Seater Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 3-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs138,599

Bold and exquisite, the Nixon three-piece corner couch is wrapped in exquisite full-grain leather and features wide armrests and a comfortable deep seat. Exposed stitching adds a modern finish to the simplicity of this large lounge set.



Rs110,299

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boats a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs135,499

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch with Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 6-piece modular couch with free-standing ottoman
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs110,299

The Jagger Leather Modular Corner Couch Set boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. 

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs100,799

The Jagger Leather Modular Daybed boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 4-piece Modular Couch with free-standing Nubuck leather ottoman
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seam

Rs78,799

Classy with a touch of creative flair, the Rockefeller Leather Couch exudes effortless sophistication. Comfortably cushioned and upholstered in high quality full grain leather, this ample three-seater shows off visibly stitched lines adding distinctive personality and class to an otherwise laid-back contemporary look.

The iconic vintage tan finish introduces a modern take on a classic to your home.

Rs135,499

The Jagger Leather Modular Grand Corner Couch with Ottoman boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • 6-piece modular couch with free-standing ottoman
  • Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs66,199

Add a sense of suave sophistication to your living space or personal study with the Hoffmann Leather Couch, upholstered in top-quality full-grain leather. This sumptuous 2-to-3 seater features an elegant mid-century modern design, finished with distinctive stitch detailing, tufted seat cushions and tapered wooden feet, giving the Hoffmann unique character and charm. An ideal addition to update the look of any space. 

Rs114,999

The iconic Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full grain leather upholstery and piano caster front feet.

Rs75,599

The Jagger Leather Modular 4-Seater Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. With plenty of style and space this modular couch is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel.

  • - 3-piece Modular Couch
  • - Nubuck leather with reversed stitched seams

Rs62,999

The Granger Leather Couch offers laid-back yet sophisticated luxury to welcome you home. Upholstered in the highest quality, this spacious 3 seater features plush cushioning and a relaxed low back.

  • High-quality full-grain leather with Vintage Tan finish
  • Iconic ginger leather upholstery
  • lightly tapered Saligna wood legs

This impressive piece infuses natural warmth and character that will complement and upgrade any contemporary space.

Rs114,999

The iconic Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full grain leather upholstery and piano caster front feet.

Rs98,299

The iconic Jefferson Leather 2-Seater Couch will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather 2-Seater Couch lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full grain leather upholstery and piano caster front feet.

Rs114,999

The iconic Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch will command any room with effortless charm. With its iconic deep button tufting, high rolled arms and nail head trim, the design has proved itself as a timeless classic over the years. Our Jefferson Leather 3-Seater Couch lives up to its reputation, ensuring the feel of suave luxury with its full grain leather upholstery and piano caster front feet.

Rs47,299

The Jagger 3 Seater Leather Couch boasts a bold contemporary design with a square-like silhouette, keeping the design simple but striking. The Jagger is upholstered with luxurious Nubuck genuine leather, finished with reversed stitched seams to keep a natural raw look with a warm feel. This couch is the ideal furniture piece for any contemporary setting.